Sunday, August 23, 2020

Stages of Child Language Acquisition

Phases of Child Language Acquisition A youngster begins to speak with people around him/her since birth, in spite of the fact that in the initial barely any months this correspondence happens on a non-verbal level. Be that as it may, as a kid grows genuinely, he/she bit by bit gets language aptitudes. In general, youngster language obtaining starts from phonological turn of events and continues to syntactic and semantic turn of events. The point of the current exposition is to investigate three significant phases of the principal language obtaining (phonological, syntactic and semantic). In spite of the fact that etymologists and different researchers have concurred in conclusion that language is a procedure of securing (as opposed to the way toward learning), they give conflicting speculations of youngster language procurement (Cole, 1996). Among the most popular hypotheses are a support hypothesis, an impersonation hypothesis, a basic age hypothesis and a similarity hypothesis. Regardless of the way that every one of these speculations present a legitimate clarification of language securing, certain issues happen when they are applied to rehearse. The most probable translation of phonological, syntactic and semantic advancement of a youngster is given by impersonation and relationship speculations; thus, these hypothetical ideas are utilized for the examination. As indicated by these hypotheses, the procedure of kid language obtaining is planned for changing in accordance with adults’ discourse that has its principles and structures. As procurement of language is a somewhat unpredictable procedure, a kid just tunes in to adults’ discourse in the initial scarcely any months. As a matter of fact, in this period a youngster is engaged with the procedure of language discernment as opposed to the procedure of language creation (See Table 1). Be that as it may, as a youngster arrives at the age of a half year, he/she begins to articulate different sounds (Fee, 1995). From the outset a youngster articulates vowel sounds and further he/she figures out how to join vowels and consonants (for example sa, da, mama, ba, di, ti, gu, and so forth.). At around 8 months a youngster continually rehashes syllables (for example ba-ba-ba or di-di-di) and by a year he/she effectively joins these syllables into a straightforward word (for example â€Å"mama†, â€Å"papa† or â€Å"baba†). It is noteworthy that child’s way to express sounds likewise reflects pitch and worry; as indicated by Echols and N ewport (1992), through these examples a kid makes an endeavor to confer certain significance or uncover his/her feelings. This prattling is the underlying advance in child’s phonological turn of events (Macken, 1995); the genuine phonological aptitudes are uncovered by a youngster at around 1.4 years (however even at the period of 0.4 †0.9 months a kid as of now has some phonological capacities, as he figures out how to perceive local and non-local discourse). As of now a youngster shows perception of the connection among sounds and implications; also, he/she begins to distinguish phonemic contrasts in grown-up discourse. During the time spent sound creation a youngster surely commits elocution errors that language specialists view as phonological deviations. For the most part, phonological deviations are isolated into two essential classes: replacement blunders and syllable mistakes (Bankson Bernthal, 1998). Further, these classifications are isolated into a few sub-cla ssifications, including feeble syllable cancellation, last consonant erasure, consonant bunch decrease, velar fronting, palatal fronting, halting, coasting of fluids, word last devoicing, and so forth. Because of a youthful discourse mechanical assembly, a few sounds are more unpredictable for child’s articulation than others; for example, such consonant sounds as â€Å"l† and â€Å"r† are learned by a kid later than sounds â€Å"p† and â€Å"m†, in light of the fact that the previous sounds are phonetically comparable, while the last sounds are extraordinary. Subsequently, a youngster substitutes voiceless sounds with voiced sounds (for example â€Å"gap’ rather than â€Å"cap† or â€Å"tad† rather than â€Å"dad†); it is setting delicate voicing. The subsequent deviation is word last devoicing; it is a procedure when last voiced consonants are subbed with voiceless consonants (â€Å"dad’ is articulated as â€Å"dat†). A kid may likewise utilize last consonant erasure, articulating â€Å"co† rather than â€Å"cow† or â€Å"pin† rather than â€Å"pink†. Velar fronting (for exa mple â€Å"tiss† rather than â€Å"kiss†) and palatal fronting (for example â€Å"sake† rather than â€Å"shake†) are utilized by a youngster, since it is simpler for him/her to articulate consonants that are at the front of the mouth and teeth. Other phonological deviations incorporate feeble syllable cancellation (â€Å"pape† rather than â€Å"paper†), consonant congruity (â€Å"goggy† rather than â€Å"doggy), bunch decrease (â€Å"tool† rather than â€Å"stool†), halting (â€Å"pan† rather than â€Å"fan†) and skimming of fluids (â€Å"wat† rather than â€Å"rat). Actually, as Maye, Werker Gerken (2002) show in their exploration, a youngster sees precise phonemic complexities, however he/she can't deliver right sounds until an appropriate age. Also, in contrast to grown-ups, a newborn child may even recognize outside phonemic complexities from local differences; because of this capacity a young ster who is embraced in a remote nation may effortlessly procure language of his/her folks. At the age of 3-4 years most youngsters figure out how to legitimately articulate all sounds, dispensing with most of phonological deviations. In any case, a few youngsters may keep on utilizing these deviations in their discourse; pros see these kids as people with certain phonological issue that may detrimentally affect their understanding abilities (Ingram, 1989). At the point when a youngster figures out how to articulate straightforward words, he/she continues to join known words into little expressions. In this regard, a kid gains syntactic abilities that are generally evolved in two phases: the holophrastic stage and the two-word stage. During the holophrastic stage (somewhere in the range of 0.9 and 1.0 years) a youngster structures single word expressions with a specific sound. When all is said in done, these articulations are made out of either action words or things, while descriptors and different grammatical features are obtained by a kid thereafter. Truth be told, it is fairly hard for grown-ups to decipher child’s single word sentences, as, for example, â€Å"book† may imply that he/she needs his/her folks to peruse a book or that he/she sees a book or that he/she doesn't care for this book. The circumstance is considerably progressively muddled when a kid articulates an expression without spans. As per O’Grady (1997), â€Å"many youngsters at first treat what’s that? see that, come here, and comparative articulations as single units that are connected comprehensively to a specific situational context† (p.13). At the end of the day, if a youngster hears phrases that are some way or another focused on, he/she may extricate them from the remainder of discourse and use them as a solitary substance, making no delays among words. In the two-word stage (1.5-2.0 years) a kid makes two-word sentences that are articulated with single inflection and begin to mirror the primary semantic relations, for example, â€Å"baby read† or â€Å"sit table† (Pinker, 1994). By and large, these articulations are sorted as follows: 1) Noun Utterances: My apple, His Daddy. 2) Verb Utterances: Me play, Girl sing. 3) Questions: Mom read? Baba go? 4) Negatives: Not eat, No shirt. As the models appear, however these sentences are not linguistically right yet, they are developed in a correct request (Ingram, 1989). By the age of 2-3 years a youngster effectively creates a few thousand syntactic articulations, and the significant worry in these expressions is put on the word that gives more data (for example â€Å"Mummy COME† or â€Å"MUMMY come†). At first, these sentences need such capacity units as â€Å"on†, â€Å"the† or â€Å"of† and such emphases as â€Å"-s†, â€Å"-ing† or â€Å"-ed† (thus, child’s discourse at this stage is typically viewed as â€Å"telegraphic speech†), however bit by bit a kid incorporates nullifications, passives, comparatives, relative statements and conjunctions in his/her sentences. At times a youngster may utilize right examples and wrong examples in a single sentence, for example, I perusing and Mama is cooking. Such a mix uncovers, that a kid realizes certai n language designs, yet he/she has not aced them yet. Be that as it may, if a grown-up utilizes these examples erroneously, he/she will clearly point at the slip-up. As a kid procures information on such an example as â€Å"-ed†, he/she as a rule goes to overregularisation, that is, a procedure when all action words become customary in child’s discourse (for example â€Å"goed† or â€Å"spended†). This overregularisation can be clarified by the way that a kid obtains a language in specific examples and, as he/she learns the example (for example â€Å"mama helped† or â€Å"baba claimed†), he/she applies this example to different action words, including unpredictable action words. It is unquestionably simpler for a kid to apply â€Å"-ed† to all action words than to retain every single sporadic action word and separate ordinary action words from unpredictable action words. As the time passes, a youngster figures out how to change an ina ppropriate action word structure for a correct structure. Also, he/she step by step obtains information on clear and uncertain articles, plural things, connecting action words and possessive cases. Notwithstanding, in any event, when a kid gains information on every one of these guidelines and examples, he/she may in any case be not able to shape complex articulations; subsequently, a kid may go to the reiteration of specific expressions to fill holes in his/her discourse. At long last, as a youngster figures out how to make straightforward sentences, he/she secures semantic aptitudes (roughly 3.0 years). As word procurement increases, a kid crashes into a need to frame semantic examples; most importantly, a kid utilizes those con

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Write a How to Essay

How to Write a How to EssayYou're trying to learn how to write a how to essay. You know it is a good idea to make your reader feel as though they are in your shoes when they read what you've written. That's why writing an essay is so important and has become so much easier. You can quickly write your way through this article, but just remember you'll need to get some help from someone who knows what they're doing.The difficulty comes when you don't know how to write a how to essay because you aren't used to putting the right words together. It can be easy to throw together a bunch of vague ideas and sayings, but if you really want to make sure that you have all the answers to these questions, you're going to need a little guidance. Read on and learn more about how to write a how to essay.First, you need to brush up on your grammar and spelling. If you're not used to writing in English, you're going to need to start there. There are going to be many people reading this. Don't be surpr ised if you aren't perfect in the English language. A lot of people use English every day, so you're going to have to get some better at it before you start thinking about writing in another language.Do some online or college courses if you haven't already. This will help you understand how to write a how to essay. This is important because you will find out about how to create sentences, paragraphs, and even paragraphs with proper grammar. If you already have a good grasp of the English language, you won't have any trouble understanding how to create an essay. You might also want to spend some time reviewing other people's work, too.Once you understand how to writea how to essay, you can start adding in your own ideas. Don't just copy someone else's sentence structure. Take some time to think about what will make a good essay. This will help you not only write better but give you the confidence that you can write well.Speaking of confidence, this is another important aspect of writ ing a how to essay. It takes a lot of time to go over these. Don't allow your fears keep you from writing. Be sure to practice your sentences around different people. These people can be people in real life, such as professors or teachers, co-workers, friends, or relatives.One of the best ways to learn how to write a how to essay is to hire a writing service. They will teach you exactly how to write an essay so that you can finish it. You may have to pay for this, but if you're just starting out and need some guidance, you're going to be happy with the outcome. It will save you a lot of time and frustration later on.Writing a how to essay isn't that hard. In fact, if you take the time to learn the basics of how to write a how to essay, you can write anything you want. Just make sure that you learn to edit and proofread before you send it off to anyone. Even if you don't know how to do it yet, they can teach you if you're willing to give it a shot.

Tuesday, July 7, 2020

Life Lessons in A Child Called It and The Lost Boy - Literature Essay Samples

Martin Luther King Jr. once said, â€Å"Faith is taking the first step with courage even when you dont see the whole staircase.† In the nonfiction novels â€Å"A Child Called It† and â€Å"The Lost Boy† by Dave Pelzer, Dave survives through hard times with courage and faith. Dave’s mother used to be the best mother he could ask for until she became an alcoholic. Since then she has become very abusive both physically and verbally, hurting Dave in many ways. In the first book, â€Å"A Child Called It,† Dave has to have a lot of hope and courage to survive. Then after doing so he must learn to be able to fit in to a normal household when he gets taken into foster care in the second book. This will require him to have faith in himself and others. In the end he emerges victorious. Therefore, the lesson that Dave teaches us is that courage, hope, and faith can help you get through the hardest times in life. One instance in which Dave illustrates the importance of courage and hope is when he decides to start fighting back against his mother. After his mother beats him one day, Dave has had enough and builds up the courage to survive and fight back against his mom. He states, â€Å"That day I vowed to myself that I would never, ever again give that bitch the satisfaction of hearing me beg her to stop beating me† (Pelzer 43). David is trying to be optimistic about the future and have hope that he can make it out alive and eventually stop the abuse. He does not want his mother to have the satisfaction of beating him while he just sits there doing nothing, so he decided to do anything to make sure it doesnt happen. Another time he tries to fight back is when he tells his school nurse about his abuse. On page 12, Pelzer is talking to his school nurse and is asked about his wounds. He replies â€Å"That is where my mother stabbed me ma’am.† He has finally built up the cour age to tell someone about the things that his mother does to him. Because of the fact that he had the courage to do so, the police find out and he is taken from his mothers custody. The ends his life of being abused and he is saved from his mother. In order to survive he had to not give up and have faith in others. Another time where Dave teaches us about the importance of courage, hope, and faith is in the second book, â€Å"The Lost Boy,† when he has to now begin a new life in a foster home. After spending a short while in a temporary foster home, Dave goes to his second foster home which is owned by Lillian. He really wants to live as a normal kids, make friends, and find someone he can call his new mom. At one point he is speaking to Lillian about his past and she says, â€Å"You’ve overcome more in 12 years than most folks will ever accomplish in a lifetime. You hoped to survive and in the end you did† (Pelzer 206). This goes to prove that Dave must have had a lot of trouble in life and that his hope to find a new life and new beginnings has been keeping him going. For someone to survive such horrific treatment and then become a normal kid is very hard and you would need a lot of hope and courage to do so. Another example is when at the end of the book Dave, who is now a grown man, is reflecting on his past. He writes, â€Å"I had a lot of faith in not only my self, but also other. If not for this I would have given up long ago† (Pelzer 302). Dave believed in himself and that he had what it took to change and be able to survive. He also believed in others and that they would help him. The fact that he says that he may not have lasted if not for all the faith he had in others and himself shows that it is one of the biggest reasons he was able to push through and live on. The lesson that Dave teaches us is that courage, hope, and faith can help you get through the hardest times in life. Even when you are faced with difficulties that you or others believe are impossible to overcome, you should not give up. If you are courageous enough to stand up against it and have the hope that you can win, you will. You must believe in yourself and those around you. This is the message that Dave tries to convey in the story.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Lord Of The Flies Critical Analysis - 1864 Words

â€Å"This book is terrible, I don t get it, and it doesn t even make sense,† that s what most people would say about The Lord of the Flies. The reason such things are said about the book is because most don t pick up on underlying themes and metaphors William Golding uses to convey the terrifying message of the savageness that lives within all of us. Golding’s style of ambiguity, his character choice, and symbols bring the work together to express a powerful message of self control and awareness to ourselves and others. His ambiguous style creates a sort of humanity in the narrator to show the absolute insanity of the characters. Golding uses the persona of certain characters in the beginning of the book to explain their behavior in the†¦show more content†¦Golding portrayed the most intense and important scenes with no solid answer as to what happened because the reader knows that they ve died but without confirmation from the author the reader is left to gue ss what really happened and question their instinctive knowledge. The style could be described as a manipulative way to write knowing that it will make people question themselves and what they know subconsciously. Quotes are used to convey how people are feeling through others words that they can t express themselves or what stands out as truthful or is what resonates within someone. Quotes are small pieces of someone s work that make the reader feel the most. Some quotes are from characters that the reader most relates to, or the ones that they hate beyond compare, or from the omniscient narrator that tells all. One of the most memorable quotes in Lord of the Flies is on page 202, â€Å"And in the middle of them, with filthy body, matted hair, and an unwiped nose, Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy.† Ralph had witnessed the murder of his only friend on the island and had no time to stop and cry or mourn for him. He was being hunted by the ones who once stood by his side to be killed like a pig. During the hunt ofShow MoreRelatedLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis1467 Words   |  6 PagesLord of the Flies is a twisted tale that blends the savagery of the human race with the civilization of everyday life. Golding shows that authority can corrupt the mind of those who try to abuse their power in the wrong way. Golding wrote in a manner that was realistic in order to show the imperfections of human nature. There was more significance behind the simple elegance of his words than just a fictional story. The many layers prevalent throughout the novel must be peeled back one by one in orderRead MoreLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis877 Words   |  4 PagesThe human nature according to Sigmund Freud is composed of three psyches, the id, the ego and the superego which play an important role in the decision making human brain. In the book, Lord Of The Fli es, William Golding analyzes these three components of the psychic composition of the human brain, its various manifestations and how it plays in during the formation of a government. In the book, a group of young English schoolboys, land on an abandoned island in the infancy of World War II, whereRead MoreLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis815 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Golding, the author of Lord of the Flies, was in the British Royal Navy during WWII and witnessed first hand what happened. â€Å"Such a reading takes into account the state of the world at the end of World War II† (Henningfeld 188). In the war, he fought battleships and also was put in command of rocket-launching craft. Being a soldier in WWII helped influence on why he wrote the novel, Lord of the Flies. He was also a teacher to young British schoolboys, and that also helped him create the charactersRead MoreThe Lord Of The Flies Critical Analysis1055 Words   |  5 Pageslife, but are still taught in school, a book should teach a lesson or give food for thought, this book does. The Lord of the Flies is a novel that has become a mainstay in high school literature for decades, some detractors of this book believe that, since it has nothing to do with high school teens, its main audience, it should be removed from public schools. However, the Lord of the Flies acts as a social experiment, allowing for discussion of the way rules control our interactions in society. InRead MoreLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis1916 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Lord of the Flies† is an outstanding, unique, and captivating novel written by the memorable William Golding. The novel is well written and eye-opening despite being relatively short and easily understandable. Golding provides a new perspective on the true nature within every person that will shock readers and leave them wondering the truth. The descriptive and gloomy diction within â€Å"Lord of the Flies† keeps readers intrigue d and never bored. William Golding writes with an eerie and dark tone thatRead MoreLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis2006 Words   |  9 Pagesto answer is the judgment and greed that consumes the mind of all mortals. For these reasons, it is painfully obvious that the grim grotesque core in all humans is what William Golding desperately delineates to the audience of readers in the Lord of the Flies. He created children who were nothing more than average boys and rattled their conflicts and created tension and corruption. Another key point the boys have in the deep meaning of the book is the personalities they begin with and the ones theyRead MoreLord of the Flies Critical Analysis Essay767 Words   |  4 PagesIn the novel Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, Golding illustrates many different themes. One of the themes he demonstrates is being away from a civilized society causes a person to become barbaric. Throughout the novel the conflict is demonstrated between Jack and Ralph who represent s avagery vs. civilization. The ways Golding demonstrates this theme is how the boys’ language changes throughout the story. Also the way their behavior changes, and how they lose their identities through out theRead MoreLord Of The Flies Critical Analysis Essay940 Words   |  4 PagesLord Of The Flies by William Golding William Golding’s novel, Lord of the Flies, contributes many pessimistic events that overrule the good, but there are some optimistic inputs that are added to the story. Ralph, Jack and all the other boys have been trapped on an island with very little resources, and are basically doomed from the beginning, but they all have hope including Ralph. Golding has included hope into bad situations such as Ralphs defiance to Jack’s tribe, Sam and Erics refusal to betrayRead MoreSocietal Breakdown On The Island1720 Words   |  7 PagesSocietal breakdown on the island in ‘Lord of the Flies’ is due to the inherent evil of man 3.8: Develop an informed understanding of literature and/or language using critical texts. Hypothesis: Societal breakdown on the island is due to the inherent evil of man Jason Carvalho ‘Lord of the Flies’ is the name of William Golding’s historically famous novel, yet it is more than just a title. It is a kind of statement, a way of mocking the very existences of humanity. Reading this book I cameRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1389 Words   |  6 PagesA response to Lord Of The Flies Imagine an airplane crash. The heat of flames scorch passengers’ backs in addition to the wind burning their faces. Lucky, this crash was over water and near an island so most passengers survive, with an exception of the airplane staff and the pilot. Even though alive, many are in fits of fear and panic, and others are in shock. After hurried deliberation, a lone member of the group is elected leader in hopes that they will calm the panic, and make the hard, but necessary

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mezquita De Córdoba in Southern Spain - 797 Words

Mezquita De Cà ³rdoba The Mosque-Cathedral of Cà ³rdoba represents the many cultural changes the city of Cà ³rdoba and the areas around it have gone through. It has stood in the center of the city for over a millennium, and it doesn’t look like it will fall anytime soon. It covers over 24,000 square meters (about 250,000 square feet), and is 9 meters tall at its lowest and 30 meters tall at its highest. The Cathedral of Cà ³rdoba is officially called The Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, but it was originally built by the Islamic Moors to be a place of worship for muslims. Historians believe that before the mosque was built, there was a temple to the Roman God Janus on the same site. That temple was then converted into a church by the Visigoths before they were conquered by the Moors. It was split in 2 and used as both a church and a mosque until it was torn down and replaced with the Mosque of Cordoba. In the year 784 AD, construction for the mosque started under the emir Abd Ar-Rahman 1. It took well over 2 centuries to finish, and even after it did it went through many changes. A new minaret was added, and some design changes were made including a more decorative mihrab (signals the direction of Kaaba, a place that is very holy to muslims), and a courtyard for orange trees was placed inside it. It reached its current size in the year 987 when construction was completed. The architects of the building planned to place Roman columns with special capitals, including some thatShow MoreRelatedEssay on A Comparison of Christian and Islamic Architecture in Spain1081 Words   |  5 Pagesof Christian and Islamic Architecture in Spain By the 6th century a Germanic tribe called the Visigoths, converts to Arian Christianity, had established themselves as the aristocratic elite. The Christians built many monumental basilica-plan churches. The Santa Maria de Quintanilla de las Vinas, Burgos, Spain and San Juan de Banos de Cerrato are two such churches that still remain today. In the beginning of the 8th century Islamic Muslims conquered Spain and ended Visigothic rule. They constructedRead MoreThe Creation Of Islam Throughout Ad 6622599 Words   |  11 Pagesreaching the Atlantic. Through similar interests of conquest, the Arabs were drawn into Spain. The Muslims traveled across the Strait of Gibraltar in AD 711. Despite resistance from southern regions, they conquered successfully. (Jellicoe 40) By AD 712, Muslims occupied Seville and Cordoba. The Muslim part of Spain stands independently and survives for eight centuries. (Newton 31) Muslims arrive in Spain and influence regions knowledgably, architecturally and through use of the land. DespiteRead MoreMuslim Spain (711-1492)8971 Words   |  36 Pagesexperienced one of its greatest periods of cultural enlightenment.Islam in Spain has had a fundamental presence in the culture and history of the nation. The religion was present inmodern Spanish soil from 711 until 1492 under the rule of the Arabs and Moors of al-Andalus.Islamic Spain was a multi-cultural mix of the people of three great monotheistic religions: Muslims,Christians, and Jews.For more than three centuries in Medieval Spain, Muslims, Jews and Christians lived together and prospered in a thriving

Challenge and Response to Body Integrity System

Question: Discuss about the Challenge and Response to Body Integrity System. Answer: Introduction: The reception of pain in the peripheral nervous system to the perception of the same in the brain, and the corresponding generation of response behaviours, is achieved through several pathways. These different nociceptive pathways kick-off in a similar manner in which a pain signal coming from the skin, for instance, travels up a sensory nerve fibre made up of axons of the spinal ganglion. The axons then enter the spinal cord, upon which they immediately divide into the upward and downward segments of the spinal cord (Purves, 2012; Hughes, 2008). There are five phases that make up the pain pathway, first, it is transduction of pain at the receptors, the second phase is signal conduction at peripheral nerves, and modulation at the spinal cord level. These steps are further succeeded by descending inhibition and perception at the supra spinal sites. Transduction of pain begins when nociceptors respond to noxious stimuli which may be as a result of damage and inflammation attributes to trauma or infection (Siegel, 2006). Nociceptors are available in both visceral (skin, bones, muscles and joints) and somatic structures (visceral organs). Pain transmission occurs in three phases. The first phase is the transmission of the impulse from the transduction site to the spinal cord, followed by the transmission from the spinal cord to the brain stem, and lastly transmission through connections between the thalamus, cortex and higher brain levels. Perception of pain is where pain becomes a conscious multidimensional experience with compo nents such as emotions and behaviours. Pain modulation involves altering or obstructing transmission of the impulses through in the spinal cord. Modulation is effected by the descending modulatory pain pathways (DMPP) which play both excitatory or inhibition roles (Moffat Rae, 2011; Farquhar-smith, 2008; Hudspith, 2016). Morphine is an opioid drug that binds to opioid receptors. Molecular signalling of these receptors activates a wide range of actions. Generally, these actions are meant to make cell membranes less excitable and also initiate suppression of actions of pathways that control blood pressure, breathing and heart rate. Morphine receptors may include Mu receptors of the thalamus and the brainstem. Stimulation of mu receptors translate into pain relief and sedation. Another class of receptors is the kappa receptor of the limbic system, spinal cord, and the brain stem. Activation of this receptors also causes sedation and pain relief. The delta receptor, on the other hand, is abundant in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract. Stimulation of the delta receptor produces in both analgesic and antidepressant effects (McGavock, 2011). Despite morphine being relatively selective for the mu receptor, it interacts with other opioid receptors when at high concentrations. Morphine as an opioid produces analgesia by acting at several levels of the nervous system through two actions. The first action is by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitter from the primary efferent terminals in the spinal cord. The other action is by activating the descending inhibitory controls of the midbrain. Morphine inhibits neurotransmitter release by directly affecting the entry of calcium ions, and secondly, by indirectly reducing repolarisation time and the duration of the action potential (McGavock, 2011; Workman LaCharity, 2015). Through the stimulation of the different receptors, morphine provides relief from physical pain through analgesia, euphoria, and pain modulation. References Farquhar-smith, W. P. (2008). Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of pain. Anaesthesia Intensive Care Medicine, 3-7. Hudspith, M. J. (2016). Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of pain. Anaesthesia Intensive Care Medicine, 425-430. Hughes, J. (2008). Pain Management: From Basics to Clinical Practice. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences. McGavock, H. (2011). How drugs work : basic pharmacology for healthcare professionals. London: Radcliffe Pub. Moffat, R., Rae, C. P. (2011). Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of pain. Anaesthesia Intensive Care Medicine, 12-15. Purves, D. (2012). Neuroscience. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. Siegel, G. J. (2006). Basic neurochemistry : molecular, cellular and medical aspects. New York: Elsevier. Workman, M. L., LaCharity, L. A. (2015). Understanding pharmacology : essentials for medication safety. New York: Elsevier Health Science.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Passivity A Way Of Life Essays - Indian Films, Rukmani Devi, Karma

Passivity: A Way Of Life Passivity: A Way of Life. The life of the main character Rukmani was filled with hardships. Happy times were a rarity, and everyday life was full of work from sunrise to sunset. Yet despite all the work, her family was in utter poverty. Nevertheless Rukmani was always optimistic, and accepted her life the way it was. Kenny, on the other hand, never understood why they accept their poverty and always tried to get them to rise up. It is Indian ideology and the belief in karma with reincarnation that led Rukmani and many other Indian people to a passive life. This passivity is seen throughout the book. However especially in the few instances after major disasters and crises this way of life stands out. At first, Rukmani couldnt have children after her first daughter. Kenny cured her, and then she bore five sons. Afterwards, she met Kenny and proudly said You are my benefactorhave I not five sons to prove it?(p. 36) Kenny answered, Am I to blame for your excesses? This was a half- sarcastic remark. However, only half sarcastic. Ok, you need sons to work in the field, two sons can manage if Nathan managed alone. You can barely provide for a few people, but the family consists of eight. Yet everything is just fine. Another instance is when the terrible storm hit the village and destroyed the rice paddy. When the storm finished, Rukmani just said that it will grow back and so did Nathan. At the time of the terrible drought the crop was destroyed, and even after cutting a deal of paying half the rent, selling clothes, and a few other things they didnt have enough money to pay the half, Nathan wanted to sell the seed and a lot of other stuff. Rukmani pleaded with him Let us only try, Let us keep our hope for the next harvest.(p. 80) Again there is the optimism. Finally, she even confirms this passivity herself. When Kenny showed her the plans for the hospital, and the started to talk about the costs, Rukmani couldnt understand why people gave so much money to help. Kenny said, Because they have means, do no the sick die in the streets because there is no hospital for them? Are not your children born in gutters? Etc. You must cry out if you want help. Rukmani then thought, Well, and what if we gave in to our troubles at every step! We would be pitiable creatures indeed to be so weak, for is not a mans spirit given to him to rise above his misfortunes?(p. 115) And this is the essence of the argument presented above. They believe that their life is the way to fulfill the karma given to them. So Rukmani would fulfill her poor life as a wife of a farmer. And then, if she completes her karma, maybe she would be reincarnated into a being with a better life. And also all the hardships may be punishments for bad deeds in the previous life. This is precisely why Rukmani is always so optimistic and leads her life passively through all the hard times. This passivity comes from the belief. Maybe it is a better way of life, the passivity worked for Gandhis independence movement. Plus, Rukmani did survive, and tells us this story as an old woman, probably hoping that she fulfilled her karma. Book Reports